The Hercules 009 Landfill Superfund Site was created out of a "borrow pit" used to construct nearby Spur 25 highway. Manufacturing waste, called "sludge," was placed in the borrow pit. The sludge contained high concentrations of toxaphene pesticide and toxaphene-related chemicals. The landfill was closed in 1980 when toxaphene appeared in a nearby creek—a violation of Hercules, Inc. permit. Since then toxaphene has been found along the highway, in an adjacent neighborhood, and on unused school property near the landfill.